GRADES (TYPES) OF PAPER

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z
 

This page contains list of various types of paper based on their end use, process of manufacturing, raw material used etc. Papers can be graded in 'n' numbers of ways and if we count all permutation and combination of grades total grades may well exceed 10000. Some of the major grades classifications are;

1. Based on basis weight
Tissue: Low weight, <40 g/m2
Paper: Medium weight, 40 - 120 g/m2
Paperboard: Medium High weight, 120-200 g/m2
Board: High weight, >200 g/m2
2. Based on Color
Brown: Unbleached
White: Bleached
Colored: Bleached and dyed or pigmented
3. Based on Usage
Industrial: Packaging, wrapping, filtering, electrical etc.
Cultural: Writing, printing, Newspaper, currency etc.
Food: Food wrapping, candy wrapping Coffee filter, tea bag etc.
4. Based on Raw Material
Wood: Contain fibers from wood
Agricultural residue: Fibers from straw, grass or other annual plants
Recycled: Recycle or secondary Fiber
5. Based on Surface Treatment
Coated: Coated with clay or other mineral.
Uncoated: No coating
Laminated: aluminum, poly etc
6. Finish
Fine/Course
calendered/ supercalendered
Machine Finished (MF)/Machine Glazed (MG)
Glazed/Glossed

A

Abrasive Papers, Garnete animal parchment by passing a sheet of unsized, pure fiber paper through a bath of sulfuric acid and then washing it very thoroughly and drying. The acid gelatinizes the surface fibers and the dried surface is grease-proof, has a high wet strength and is very resistant to disintegration by water and many solutions.
Pattern Paper
A type of high-strength paper used by designers and tailors for making patterns.
Permanent Paper
A paper that can resist large chemical and physical changes over and extended time (several hundred years). This paper is generally acid-free with alkaline reserve and a reasonably high initial strength.
Pharmaceutical Paper
Laminating grades base paper that can be laminated to foil and used in blister packaging.
Photographic Paper
The base paper used for the production of photographic papers is a dimensionally stable, chemically neutral chemical pulp paper with wet strength properties, that must be free from contaminants. Today papers are coated on both sides with a thin polyethylene film. The cooking prevents chemicals and water entering the paper during development. This also permits shorter rinsing and drying cycles.
Playing Card Stock
A stiff board, usually made by pasting sheets of fourdrinier paper, and given a coating which will take a high polish.
Pleading Paper
Also known as Ruled and Numbered paper, pleading paper is used in the legal community and refers to paper that has been pre-printed with a single ruled line 3/8″ in from the right edge of the paper and a double ruled line 1 1/2 inches in from the left edge of the paper. Also, each row going down the left margin is numbered. On 8 1/2″ x 11″ paper, the rows are numbered 1-28 or 1-25 depending on local requirements.
Poly Extrusion Paper
Paper used for plastic extrusion. Hot melted plastic is applied at the paper surface, so the base paper should be able to withstand heat.
Postcard Board
Postcard board is either slightly mechanical or woodfree and calendered.
Post-Consumer Waste Paper
Waste paper materials recovered after being used by consumers.
Poster Paper
Poster paper is a highly mechanical, highly filled, mostly coloured paper that has been made weather resistant by sizing.
Pre-Consumer Waste Paper
Paper recovered after the papermaking process, but before used by a consumer.
Pressure Sensitive Coated Paper
Paper coated with a self-adhesive material which in dry form (solvent free) is permanently tacky at room temperature. A bond with the receiving surface may be formed by the application of pressure (e.g. by the finger or hand). A permanent adhesive is characterized by relatively high ultimate adhesion and a removable adhesive by low ultimate adhesion. Until the time of application, the adhesive surface should be covered by a suitable release coated paper.
Publishing Paper
On-machine coated printing paper. Suitable for color printing or toning with low grid number or single color printing. Our products in this category includes: Wood-free printing and writing paper, Ivory wood-free printing and writing paper.
Pulp Board
Also known as Printers’ Board, this grade is made from a single web of pulp on a paper making machine, and is produced in various substances. Used for index cards and other general products, these boards may be white or colored.
Pyroxylin Paper
Paper coated with pyroxylin lacquer to make it water resistant and glossy.

R

Rag Paper
Today rag paper is mostly made from vegetable fibres consisting of cellulose, such as cotton, linen, hemp and ramie. Rags are the most precious raw material for the papermaker. Rag papers and rag-containing papers with admixtures of chemical pulp are used for banknotes, deeds, documents, books of account, maps and copperplate engravings and as elegant writing papers. They are also used for special technical applications.
Recovered Paper
Paper recovered for recycling into new paper products. Recovered paper can be collected from industrial sources (scraps, transport packaging, unsold newspapers...) or from household collections (old newspapers and magazines, household packaging).
Recovered Paper Grades
Recovered paper sorted by types in order to be recycled by paper mills. Specific grades are used by paper mills, in order to produce different types of paper and boards.
Release Paper
Release paper is used to prevent the sticking of glue, paste or other adhesive substances. Coating paper with silicone yields papers with a surface that prevents adhesion of most substances. Application: cover material for self-adhesive papers or films, e.g. in label production.
Rice Paper
A common misnomer applied to lightweight Oriental papers. Rice alone cannot produce a sheet of paper. Rice or wheat straw is used occasionally mixed with other fibers in paper making. The name may be derived from the rice size (starch) once used in Japanese papermaking
Rolling Paper
Rolling papers are small sheets or rolls of paper used to hand or machine roll the tobacco, cannabis etc. to make cigarette or cigar. Rolling papers are made from hemp, flax and/ or rice plant fibers. Rolling papers are same as cigarette paper.
Roofing Paper
Board that is impregnated with tar, bitumen and/or natural asphalt.

S

Sack Paper
High strength kraft paper used for paper sacks.
Safety Paper
Papers with a special protection against abusive imitation. The safeguards are used during the production of the paper. It is also known as anti-falsification paper.
Sanitary Papers
The group of sanitary papers includes cellulose wadding, tissue and crepe paper, made from waste paper and/or chemical pulp - also with admixtures of mechanical pulp. As a consequence of the importance of tissue today, this name is now used internationally as a collective term for sanitary papers. These grades are used to make toilet paper and numerous other sanitary products such as handkerchiefs, kitchen wipes, towels and cosmetic tissues.
Sanitary Tissue Paper
Tissue is a sanitary paper made from chemical or waste paper pulp, sometimes with the admixture of mechanical pulp. It has a closed structure and is only slightly creped. It is so thin that it is hardly used in a single layer. Depending on the requirements the number of layers is multiplied. Creping is made at a dryness content of more than 90 %. The dry creping (unlike with sanitary crepe papers) and the low grammage of a single tissue layer result in a high softness of the tissue products. For consumer products it is normally combined in two or more layers. The flexible and highly absorbent product [is mainly produced from chemical pulp and/or DIP - sometimes also with admixture of groundwood pulp] can also be provided with wet strength. Applications: facial tissues, paper handkerchiefs, napkins, kitchen rolls, paper towels, toilet paper.
Security paper
Paper which includes identification features such as metallic strips and watermarks to assist in detecting fraud and to prevent counterfeiting.
Self Adhesive paper
Used essentially for labeling purposes, this grade has a self-adhesive coating on one side and a surface suitable for printing on the other. The adhesive is protected by a laminate which enables the sheet to be fed through printers or printing machines, the laminate subsequently being stripped when the label is applied
Self Contained paper
A self imaging carbonless paper that does not need the use of any other carbonless stock to make an image appear. When pressure is applied, it causes the chemicals on the front of the sheet to create an image. This paper is used in ribbonless impact printers.
Silicon Treated Paper
A strong paper with a glazed finish that is treated with silicones on one side. This produces a release quality that is necessary for the liners used for pressure sensitive paper.
Single Faced Corrugated Board
Corrugated fiberboard consisting of two layers, one of fluted paper and one of facing.
Sized Paper
Sizing reduces the water absorbency of the paper and thus creates the condition for the writability with ink. Sized paper is also used for many other purposes (printing, coating, gluing, etc.), and the sizing agents must fulfil a wide range of tasks. For instance, they control the water absorbency and increase the ability to retain water and ink (pick resistance).
Solid Fiberboard
Collective term for all solid board grades.
Specialty Paper
The group of specialty papers comprises numerous paper grades, each characterized by particular properties. These properties often require special raw materials.
Spinning Paper
Paper with a particularly high tensile strength in the machine direction; suitable for being spun into yarn or string.
Splice
The joining together of two lengths of paper by their ends.  Used to repair a break or to attain greater continuous length in a roll.  Splices are made using either glues or adhesive tapes.
Splice Tag
A marker put in the edge of a roll to show the location of a splice.  Also called a flag.
Stamp Paper
Paper used for printing postal stamp. Paper should have good printability, high strength, good glueability, permanence and high dimensional stability.
Strawboard
Board made from partially cooked straw, bagasse or grass or a mixture of these.
Suede Paper
Paper that has a velour finish.
Supercalendered Paper
A type of uncoated paper that has been supercalendered to obtain a smooth surface and high gloss than the machine-finished paper. It is used for printed advertising material, catalogues, and magazines.
Surface-Sized
Paper that has been treated with starch or other sizing material at the size press of the paper machine. This term is used interchangeably with the term "tub-sized", although tub-size more properly refers to surface sizing applied as a separate operation where the paper is immersed in a tub of sizing (starch or glue), after which it passes between squeeze rolls and is air dried.
Super Art Paper
Highest grade of art paper with double or triple coating. Coat weight of 25g/m2 per side, with gloss level over 80%, surface feels smooth and shiny, superb printing quality, suitable for high-quality picture books, product catalogues, and refined printing products..
Synthetic Fiber Paper
Papers made from synthetic fibers such as polyamide and polyester, from viscose staple fiber or sometimes also with fillers. The fibers are mainly held together by binders. The durable synthetic fiber papers are used for maps and highly important documents such as driving licenses or vehicle registration books.

T

Tag Paper
A heavy utility grade of paper used to print tags, such as the store tags on clothing. Tag paper must be strong and durable, yet have good affinity for printing inks.
Tea Bag Paper
Used to pack tea leaves. Paper should not have any impurities. It should have high liquid permeability and should withstand boiling water.
Technical Paper
Variety of medium-grammage papers used in different industrial purposes.
Testliner
Mainly produced from waste paper used as even facing for corrugated board or as liner of solid board. They are often produced as duplex (two-layer) paper. The grammage is higher than 125 gsm.
Text Paper
Text papers are defined as fine, high quality uncoated papers. Typically, they are made in various colors, with numerous textures and a variety of surface finishes. Text papers are made from high-grade bleached wood pulp, cotton fibers, or tree-free pulp such as bamboo. Recycled sheets include high quality recycled waste paper and post-consumer waste pulp, in addition to bleached wood pulp, tree-free pulp or cotton fibers.
Thermal Paper
Any paper with a heat-sensitive coating on which an image can be produced by the application of heat. Detailed specification can be viewed at Jujo Thermal Paper
Thin Paper
Includes carbonizing, cigarette, bible, air mail and similar papers.
Tissue
A low weights and thin sheet. Normally a paper sheet weighing less than 40 gram per meter square is called tissue.

At-Home products: Also known as Consumer Products, these are the tissue products you purchase in the grocery store and convenience store for use in your home and include toilet paper and facial tissue, napkins and paper towels, and other special sanitary papers.

Away-from-Home products: Also known as Commercial &Industrial Tissue, these are the products that serve markets such as hospitals, restaurants, businesses, institutions, and janitorial supply firms.

Specialty: These types of tissue papers are often high-end, decorative papers that are glazed, unglazed, or creped, and include wrapping tissue for gifts and dry cleaning, as well as crepe paper for decorating.

Facial tissue: The class of soft, absorbent papers in the sanitary tissue group. Originally used for removal of creams, oil, and so on, from the skin, it is now used in large volume for packaged facial tissue, toilet paper, paper napkins, professional towels, industrial wipes, and for hospital items. Most facial tissue is made of bleached sulfite or sulfate pulp, sometimes mixed with bleached and mechanical pulp, on a single-cylinder or fourdrinier machine. Desirable characteristics are softness, strength, and freedom from lint.

Translucent Drawing Paper
A paper suitable for drawing office use; sufficiently translucent for an image on it to be reproduced by processes using transmitted light and for a design to be traced on it from an original placed beneath it. Such processes include blueprint and diazo.
Transparent Paper
Extended and particularly careful grinding of high quality fibres (hard chemical pulps, rags) yields a raw material permitting the production of transparent paper.
Treated Paper
Papers which have functional characteristics added through special treatment. Among the most common are insect resistant, mold resistant, clay coated, and flame retardant.
Twisting Paper
A paper of high tensile strength in the machine direction which is cut into narrow widths and spun or twisted into yarn or twine.

U

Union Kraft
A packaging material comprising two layers of Kraft paper bonded together by means of a laminate that is resistant to the transmission of water in liquid or vapor form. E.g. bitumen or plastic.
Unglazed Paper
Un-calendered paper.
Un-sized Paper
A paper which has not been sized.
 

V

Vaporproof Paper
Paper or paperboard that has been chemically treated or laminated with vapor barrier so that it will resist the passage of gases or vapor through it. It is typically used for food packaging.
Varnish-Label Paper
Paper made from bleached chemical pulp to be converted in to label which are subsequently varnished.
Vegetable Parchment
Paper that has acquired, by the action of sulfuric acid, a continuous texture. It offers high resistance to disintegration by water and grease.
Vellum Paper
(1) Paper finish that exhibits a toothy surface similar to eggshell or antique and is relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration.
(2) A high-grade paper made to resemble parchments originally made from calf’s skin.
(3) Social and personal stationery is often called vellum.
Velour Paper
A paper with a velvet like finish, produced by flocking the surface with fine bits of rayon, nylon, cotton, or wool, it is sometimes embossed in various patterns.
Velvet Finish Paper
Paper with a smooth finish without any gloss, simulating velvet.
Verdol Paper
A high strength rigid paperboard or pressboard made typically from jute fibers. It is also known as jacquard board.
Vulcanizing Paper
Paper made specifically for treatment with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to gelatinize the surface cellulose. Vulcanizing converts the paper in to a hard, dense and tough sheet which is used in electrical insulation, luggage, mechanical assemblies and building material.

W

Wadding
A single or multi-layer loosely matted fiber pad made from chemical pulp and used in packaging, thermal insulation and /or acoustical applications. It is also used in diaper and as absorbent material in other sanitary products.
Wall Paper
A paper used for wall covering. Also known as hanging paper.
Washi
Washi comes from wa meaning Japanese and shi meaning paper, and the term is used to describe paper made by hand in the traditional manner.  Washi is commonly made using fibers from the bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub, or the paper mulberry, but also can be made using bamboo, hemp, rice, and wheat.
Water-Color Paper
A medium weight, hard sized, coarse surface paper, suitable for painting with water based colors.
Water Finished Paper
A high glazed paper produced by moistening the sheet with water or steam during calendering.
Water Resistant Paper
Paper which has been impregnated, coated or laminated to resist the penetration of water.
Waterleaf
A paper with little or no sizing, like blotter, making it very absorbent If dampening is desired, this paper can be sprayed with an atomizer.
Waxed Paper
Nearly woodfree papers that are impregnated with paraffin, wax or wax/paraffin/plastic mixtures. With the appropriate saturation agent and process the product may be tailored for specific applications, e.g. packaging of bread or sweets or wrapping razor blades.
Wet Strength Paper
A chemically treated paper strong enough to withstand tear, rupture or falling apart when saturated with water.
White Top Liner
A two-ply sheet comprised of one bleached and one unbleached layer.
Willesden Paper
Paper made waterproof by immersing in a bath of cuprammonium hydroxide, washing and drying. The treatment partially dissolves and gelatinizes the surface and the final paper is parchment-like, tough, waterproof, rotproof and distasteful to insects. It is used for roof covering and insulating purposes.
Wipes or Wiper
Folded absorbent tissue used for cleaning purpose.
Wood Free Paper
The paper made without using mechanical pulp.
Wove
The Paper having a uniform surface and no discernible marks. Soft, smooth finish, most widely used writing, printing, book and envelope paper. Relatively low opacity, brightness and bulk.
Wrapper
The materials, consisting usually of paper or paperboard, sometimes with treatment for moisture barrier properties, which are used to protect the roll or pile form damage.
Writing Paper
Uncoated paper that is suitable for writing with ink on both sides. The writing must neither bleed nor strike through. Writing paper is always fully sized (See "Sized paper") and also suitable for printing. It can be woodfree or mechanical, depending on the intended purpose. The admixture of fillers makes it less translucent.

X

Xerographic Paper
Copying paper used on photocopier made by Xerox.

Y

Yellow Pages
Used for telephone directory advertising. Paper used for this needs to have high bulk (1.1 to 1.2), high tensile strength of about 2 kg/15 mm in MD and good opacity (90%) so that the fine print made on thin paper like 40 gsm would be readable on both side. Excellent reel build up is required for smooth feeding during printing. This requires every uniform profile of bulk, gsm, caliper, moisture etc.

 

Z


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